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Acid Purification and Recovery Using Resin Sorption Technology-A Review
用树脂吸附手艺净化和收受接管酸--综述


In the metal finishing industries solutions of strong mineral acids ( sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric) are used to remove surface oxides that impair subsequent manufacturing operations. To a large degree these oxides are dissolved by the acids and as the concentration of dissolved metals increases there is a corresponding decrease in free acid concentrations. Although fresh acid can be added to the solution to make up for this, the
oxide removal ( pickling ) rate generally decreases when the metals concentration increases. The bath must be dumped when the oxide scale is no longer being adequately removed.
     在金属精加工行业常用强无机酸(硫酸,硝酸,盐酸)来去除外表的氧化物以削减对后续消费操纵的影响。在很大程度上这些氧化物是被酸消融的,而且跟着消融的金属浓度的增长游离酸的浓度也响应削减。固然新的酸可被参加到溶液中以补偿这一点,可是当金属浓度增长的时分,氧化物去除率(酸洗)凡是会低落。当氧化皮不再被充实去除的时分,这些酸液就必需被倒掉。
This method of operation can cause productivity related problems. Freshly formulated pickling baths containing very low levels of dissolved ironare very aggressive and can cause over pickling. Material of substandard quality can also be produced as the bath approaches the spent condition.Rework may be necessary to prevent problems with subsequent surface treatment processes.
     这类操作方法会惹起生产率有关的成绩。含有消融的铁含量很低的新配制的酸洗浴长短常微弱的,并能够招致过分酸洗。因为酸洗而靠近报废的质量不合格的质料也可能会发生。返工能够是须要的,以避免呈现后续的外表处置工艺成绩。
In addition, spent pickle liquors can contain large amounts of unused or "free" acid. Free acid in a spent pickle bath represents a loss of valuablechemicals and a waste treatment liability. Continuous purification of pickle liquors can, therefore, offer several benefits to steelmakers:

- uniform product quality with reduced rework
- increased average pickling speed
- reduced chemical consumption
- reduced waste handling requirements
     另外,用废了的酸洗液也包罗了大量的未利用的或“游离”酸。用废了的酸洗液中的游离酸代表了有价值的化学品和废料处置的义务单方面的的吃亏。因而酸洗液的持续纯化能够供给为钢铁生产商带来以下优势:
- 低落返工率,统一产品质量
- 增长均匀的酸洗速度
- 削减化学品耗损
- 削减废料处置要求


2.0 The APU Process/酸纯化体系工艺
Certain ion exchange (1x1 resins, similar to those used in water softeners and water deionizers, have the ability to absorb strong acids while excluding metal salts of these acids. The acids can readily be desorbed from the resin beads with a water wash. While this phenomena, known as "acid retardation", was observed by researchers in the early sixties it was not successfully commercialized at that time. This was likely due to the limitations of conventional IX equipment design. While the acid retardation work was underway, a novel ion exchange process was being developed at the University of Toronto. This totally new approach to ion exchange
     某些离子交换(有吸附强酸而解除这些酸的金属盐的才能的特别树脂)。而且这些酸能够很容易地用水从树脂粒上冲刷出来。固然这征象,被称为“酸迟滞” ,研究人员在六十年代初曾经发明了这类征象,可是它在那时候并没有被胜利的商业化,这很可能是因为传统的IX 装备设想的局限性。现今酸迟滞事情正在进行中,多伦多大学发清楚明了一种新的离子交换工艺。这类全新的办法近似于离子交换
- embodied several unique design features:
- Fine mesh resin beads ..... to increase the surface area per cubic foot and improve reaction kinetics.
- Short resin beds .. . . reducing pressure drop and equipment size
- Fixed resin beds .... to minimize intermixing and dilution of feed and regenerant phases.
- Countercurrent flows .... of feed and regenerant steps to maximize chemical efficiency.
     表现了一些共同的设想特性:
- 细网树脂粒.....增长每立方英尺的表面积,提高反响动力学。
- 矮树脂床.....削减压力降和装备尺寸
- 牢固树脂床....只管削减互相混淆和稀释进料和再生工夫。
- 逆流进水....以最大限度地提高进料和再生步调的化学服从。
In 1975 a program was initiated to apply the process to acid retardation. The program was a success and the first acid retardation system using this technology was installed in 1977 for the purification of sulphuric acid anodizing solutions. Since that time over 150 similar systems have been installed.
     1975 年,一个适用于酸迟滞工艺的项目被启动。该项目是胜利的,在1977 年完成安装,这是第一个利用这类手艺的酸迟滞体系,用来净化铝阳极体系中的硫酸溶液。接纳这类手艺的第一酸缓慢体系为硫酸阳极氧化溶液的净化安装于1977 年。自当时以来,曾经有超越150个类似的体系安装终了。


3.0 Basic System Design/根底体系设想
In many pickling operations, the bath is formulated, worked, adjusted for free acid content as required until the dissolved metals reach a critical level, and dumped. An Acid Purification System is normally designed to hold the dissolved metal levels at a preferred operating level, typically 50 - 60% of normal dump concentration. Free acid concentration can be maintained at whatever level is required to provide the necessary pickling rate.
An Acid Purification System process is shown in Figure 1. There are three basic steps in the System including:
     在很多酸洗操纵中,酸洗液设置,事情,按照需求调解游离酸含量直到消融的金属到达一个临界程度,而且贮存。一个酸纯化体系凡是设想为连结消融金属程度在一个最好的操纵程度,普通为一般转储浓度的50-60%。游离酸的浓度能够连结在要求的任何程度,以供给须要的酸洗速度。酸洗体系的工艺历程如图1 所示。体系包罗三个根本步调:
- Bath cooling (if required)/冷却(按照需求)
- Bath filtration/过滤
- Acid Absorption/酸吸取
Bath cooling/溶液冷却
Bath cooling is necessary where oxidizers such as nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide are present. While sulphuric and hydrochloric acids can be treated at temperatures up to 80 ℃, the presence of oxidizers necessitates that the feed be cooled to about 32 ℃. City water is normally used for cooling. A variety of cooler designs are available depending on the particular requirements of the system. The water may be used for regeneration of the absorption resin and rinsing on the pickle line.
     当氧化剂有硝酸或过氧化氢存在时,普通要求溶液冷却。硫酸和盐酸在能够在温度高达80℃时处置,可是有氧化剂存在时,进料必需被冷却到约莫32 ℃。凡是是用市政供水冷却。可按照体系的特殊要求设想各类冷却器。这个水可用于吸附树脂的再生和酸洗生产线的漂洗。

图1. 典范的酸纯化体系工艺
酸洗槽酸洗漂洗槽
进水
生产工艺储水槽 水过滤器 酸过滤器 生产工艺补给槽
废液
酸纯化体系
纯化产品

a) Bath filtration/过滤
Proper filtration of the pickling acid and the regeneration water is necessary to minimize pressure drop across the absorption resin bed.
     酸洗酸和再生水的恰当的过滤是须要的,能够只管削减经由过程吸附树脂床的压降。
Pickling acid solution is filtered in a multimedia pressure filter. A backup cartridge filter is also used. The amount of solids to be removed will depend on what alloy has been pickled and how much scale has been removed, however it should be noted that the solids load is usually much lower with the purification system in operation. This is because dissolved metal concentrations are kept below their solubility limit and crystallization of metal salts does not take place.
     酸洗酸溶液经由过程多介质压力过滤器过滤。也利用备份滤芯过滤器。固体被去除的量将取决于已被酸洗的合金和被去除的尺度,但是该当指出的是,净化系统在操纵中的固体负载凡是是很低的。这是由于消融的金属浓度低于其溶解度极限而且金属盐的结晶不会发作。
A monitor on the filter checks the differential pressure between the inlet and the outlet and indicates when a backwash is required. A combination of water and compressed air is used to backwash and scour the media. The backwash sequence begins with an air blow down to exhaust the entrained pickle liquor to the surge tank. The media is then fluidized with a combination of air and water to remove trapped solids. The waste water from the backwash may contain small amounts of acid and should be treated with rinse waters from the pickle line.
     在过滤器上的监视器查抄该入口与出口之间的压力差,并指出能否需求反冲刷。用水和压缩空气的组合来停止反洗和擦洗介质。反冲刷次第是先用氛围排污开端,排挤夹带酸洗废液到缓冲罐中。介质经由过程流动的氛围和水撤除夹带的固体。反洗废水中能够含有大批的酸,并用酸洗线的漂洗水来停止处置。
Water for regeneration of the absorption resin is filtered in a multi-media filter similar to the one used for the feed acid. With this filter no special air blowdown or scouring is required.
     用于再生吸附树脂的水,用一个类似于过滤进料酸的多介质过滤器停止过滤。但这个过滤器不需要特别的氛围吹净或冲洗。
b) Acid Absorption/酸吸附
Acid absorption takes place in a skid mounted device called an Acid Purification Unit or APU . The APU consists of a container or "bed" of absorption resin, process valves and controllers. It is the heart of the System. Figure 3 is a photograph of an Acid Purification System for sulphuric acid service.
     酸的吸取在酸净化系统(APU)撬装设备中停止。APU 由吸附树脂的”床”大概容器,工艺阀门和控制器构成。它是体系的焦点。图3是用于收受接管硫酸的酸纯化体系的照片。
The resin bed is a cylindrical vessel 30 - 60 cm (12" - 24") in height. Bed diameter is dependent upon the feed flow and typically varies between 15 - 180 cm (6'' and 72").
     树脂床是一个高30- 60 厘米(12" - 24")的圆柱形容器。床体的直径取决于于进料的流量,凡是在15- 180 厘米(6 '-72“)之间变革。
The APU works on a very simple two- step cycle. During the first part of the cycle, the upstroke, filtered acid is pumped up through the resin bed and free acid is absorbed by the resin beads. Dissolved metals pass through the unit unhindered. This step continues until the resin bed has been fully loaded with acid.
     APU 以一个十分简朴的两步轮回模式事情。轮回的第一步是上冲程,过滤后的酸经由过程泵流过树脂床,游离酸被树脂粒吸附。消融的金属则畅通无阻的流出树脂床。这一步不断连续到树脂床吸附酸饱和。
Byproduct solution flowing from the unit will contain dissolved metals and a small amount of dissolved acid. In some cases the byproduct may contain recoverable chemicals, however, in most cases it must be neutralized and clarified prior to discharge. The suitability of the plant's effluent treatment system should be checked to ensure adequate capacity is available in neutralization tanks and filters.
     经由过程本体系的副产物溶液将包罗消融金属和大批消融酸。在某些状况下,副产物能够含有可收回的化学物质,可是,在大多数情况下,它必需被中和和处置后排放。该当查抄工场废水处理体系的适用性以确保中和池和过滤器有充足的处置才能。
After the resin bed has been loaded with acid, filtered water is pumped down through the bed during the "downstroke" part of the cycle. The water desorbs the acid from the resin at a Concentration suitable for recycle back to the pickle tank. This step continues until the bed has been fully regenerated.
     树脂床吸附完酸后,轮回的第二步是“下冲程”,过滤后的水经由过程泵从上向下流经树脂床。根据合适轮回到酸洗槽的酸的浓度,用水把酸从树脂上脱附下来。这个步调不断连续到床曾经完整再生。
At the beginning of each of these steps a void solution can be recycled. In the case of the upstroke step this void is essentially just the water that was left in the bed from the preceeding cycle. The void during the downstroke is feed acid that can either be mixed with the purified acid or returned to the feed tank.
     在每个步调的开端,发生的空缺液能够轮回利用。在上冲程步调中,空缺液实际上只是上一个周期中留在树脂床中的水。鄙人冲程历程中,空缺液是和纯酸混淆的进料酸,或返回到进料罐中。
The unit's operation is regulated by a flow totalizer that is coupled to a programmable controller. It is worthy to note that in all applications, acid is pumped up through the bed and water is pumped down through the bed. This utilizes the density differences of the two solutions to maintain a stable interface between the acid and water, approaching plug flow through the resin bed. Solution intermixing and dilution is minimized.
     本安装的操纵是由耦合了一个流量计的可编法式控制器来管理的。值得一提的是,在所有使用中,酸被泵向上穿过床和水被泵向下经由过程床。这操纵了两种溶液的密度差,以连结酸和水之间构成不变的界面,经由过程树脂床靠近活塞流。以使溶液稠浊和稀释的最小化。
图3 APU 工艺步调

4.0 Applications in the Steel Industry/在钢铁行业的使用
The three pickling solutions used most frequently in the steel industry are based on sulphuric, hydrochloric or nitric acids.
     最常用在钢铁行业的三种酸洗液是硫酸,盐酸和硝酸。


4 .1 Stainless Steel (Mixed Acid) pickling/不锈钢酸洗(混酸)
Mixtures of nitric and hydrofluoric acids are used to remove scale from most grades of stainless steel. Generally, these baths are formulated with 10 -15 percent by weight nitric acid and 1-4 percent by weight hydrofluoric acid, depending on the alloy to be created. Bath temperatures are maintained at 55-65℃. During the pickling process iron, chromium and nickel are dissolved in to the acid. Concentrated nitric and hydrofluoric acid must be added regularly to maintain free acid levels, however, when the metals content of the solution exceeds 5 - 6% w/w, metal salts begin to crystallize out of solution and the bath must be dumped. Frequently, manual labour must be used to remove these sediment from the tank.
     大多数级别的不锈钢用硝酸和氢氟酸的混合物来去除外表层垢。凡是,这些酸液的配方是按照要处置的合金,参加10-15%的硝酸(重量)和1-4%氢氟酸(重量)。酸洗温度连结在55- 65℃。在酸洗历程中,铁铬镍被消融在酸液中。必需按期增加浓硝酸和氢氟酸以连结游离酸的程度,但是,当溶液中金属含量超越5 - 6%w/w 时,金属盐开端结晶并从溶液中析出,此时该酸洗液必需改换。凡是状况下,必需用手事情业来从酸洗槽中去除这些沉积物。
With the APU System, the total dissolved metals concentration can be continuously maintained in the range of 2-4% w/w. This enables the solution
to be used indefinitely. Typical results using the APU on mixed acid service are given in Table 1.
     经由过程APU 体系,总消融金属浓度可持续地保持在2-4%w / w 的范围内。这使得溶液可以无限期利用。以下表1 所示为混酸中利用APU 体系服务的成果。
Table 1: APU Results - Nitric / Hydrofluoric Service/表1. APU 成果-硝酸/氢氟酸体系
Component/身分Feed/进料Product/产物Waste/华侈% Loss/丧失
Nitric acid/硝酸(g/L) 120 114 5 5
Hydrofluoric acid /氢氟酸(g/L) 30 24 5 20
Iron/铁(g/L) 30 9 18 70
Chromium /铬+ Nickel /镍(g/L) 10 3 6 70
Relative Flow/相对流量1 1 1.2
The concentrations of nitric and hydrofluoric acid shown above are free acid concentrations. The absorption process has been observed to be more efficient with highly dissociated (strong) acids. As the hydrofluoric acid is a weaker acid than the nitric, the recovery efficiency is lower. The installed cost of the APU System is dependant upon the amount of dissolved metals that must be removed from the pickle liquor and can vary between $75,000 and $500,000. These capital costs can be recovered very quickly due to value of the acids involved.
     上面所示的硝酸和氢氟酸的浓度是游离酸的浓度。吸取历程中能够观察到关于高离解的(强)酸更有用。由于氢氟酸是比硝酸要弱的酸,因而收受接管服从较低。此APU 体系的安装本钱取决于必需从酸洗溶液中去除的消融金属的量,约莫在75000 美圆至500,000 美圆。这些本钱本钱能够很快的经由过程收受接管的酸的代价中发出。
An Economic Evaluation is presented for the APU System on mixed acid service in Table 2. The evaluation is based on the following conditions:
Spent bath flow rate: 1500 L/hour (400 USGPH)
     使用在混酸中的APU 体系的经济评价如表2 所示。该评价是基于以下条件:废酸流速:1500 升/小时( 400 USGPH )
Spent bath composition/废酸身分:
100 g/L HNO3 (9% w/w)
20 g/L HF (1.8% w/w)
40 g/L Fe (3.6% w/w)
Plant operation/装备运转: 6000 hours per year/6000 小时/年
Table 2: Economic Evaluation on Mixed Acid Service/表2: 关于混酸体系的经济评价
NOTES/留意:
A) All costs are expressed in U.S. Dollars. All weights are expressed in metric tonnes (2200 lbs).
所有用度均以美圆计较。所有重量均以吨计较(2200 磅)。
B) Chemical costs based on prevailing rates as reported in Chemical Marketing Reporter ( 7 / 8 7 ) .
There is a lesser reduction in hydrofluoric acid purchases than might be expected from the operating data presented in Table 1. It has been assumed for the sake of the analysis that both iron and chromium metals are tri-valent and present in solution as complex fluoride salts. Despite this, the chemical and treatment cost savings can readily justify the capital expense. The evaluation does not attempt to quantify benefits associated with uniform pickling rates (reduced rework) and composition (prevention of salt crystallization and tank cleaning) although these can be very significant.
化学品本钱按照其时陈述的化学品市场报价。这里氢氟酸的购置量比表1 中的所估计的操纵数据有所削减。这是为了阐发而做的假定,铁和铬在庞大氟化盐中以3 价情势存在。尽管如此,化学品和处置本钱的节省能够很容易地证实了本钱收入。评价没有测验考试去计较统一的酸洗速率(低落返工),沉淀物(防备盐结晶和罐体干净)发生而带来的长处,虽然这些能够长短常明显的好处。
Cost Component /本钱组成Annual Cost /年度本钱($/year)
Simple Neutralization/简朴中和APU System/APU 体系
70% HNO3 $ 150 per tonne/吨$192,900 $ 13,800
70% HF $ 950 per tonne/吨$769,500 $592,800
Lime(石灰石) $ 50 per tonne/吨$ 86,700 $46,500
45% Cake Haulage(沉淀) $ 40 per tonne/吨$173,500 $144,400
Labor(野生) $15 per hour/小时$ 30,000
Replacement parts/改换配件$12,000
Utilities/法式$3,000
Total Operating costs/总成本$1,222,600 $ 842,500
Savings compared to Simple Neutralization/节省$ 380,100
Estimated Capital Costs/估量本钱本钱$300,000
Payback period/投资收受接管期(year 年) 0.79

4 .2 Hydrochloric Acid Pickling/盐酸酸洗
Hydrochloric acid is commonly used for pickling of mild steel on batch and continuous lines. Baths are made up with a free acid concentration of 10-15 percent by weight and can be operated between 20 and 80 degrees celcius. The baths are dumped when the dissolved iron level reaches 8 - 10% by weight. It is possible to reduce free acid levels to less than 5% as the bath reaches a spent condition. Spent acid can be contract hauled, neutralized with lime or, in some cases, used to produce ferric chloride.
盐酸凡是用于低碳钢的持续酸洗线。酸洗液体是由10-15%的游离酸(按重量)构成,在20-80℃之间停止操纵。当消融铁的含量到达8-10%(按重量)时,酸洗液需求改换。当酸洗液变成废酸时,它的游离酸程度能够低落到5%。废酸根据商定运走,用石灰中和,或在某些状况下用于消费氯化铁。
Continuous strip lines frequently operate three or four pickle tanks in series with the flow of acid running continuously between tanks. This design allows spent pickle liquor to be continuously withdrawn at very low free acid levels. In order to achieve the high pickling rates required in these lines, elevated temperatures must be used. This can lead to problems with acid vapour losses. with the APU System it is possible to reduce the solution temperature by operating the pickle liquor at higher free acid concentrations. This can be done economically since the APU System recovers virtually all of the free acid.
持续酸洗线频仍的操纵三四个持续的酸洗槽,他们两两之间的酸洗液互相流动。如许的设想许可酸洗废液在十分低的游离酸含量下持续排挤。为了在这些酸洗线上实现所要求的高效酸洗,就必需要降低温度。这可能会招致的问题是酸蒸气丧失。利用APU 体系,能够经由过程处置酸洗废液以使游离酸浓度在较高的程度来低落溶液的温度。如许做长短常经济的,由于APU 体系规复险些所有的游离酸。
In batch pickling operations the level of free acid in the spent liquor can be substantial. The APU can be used to continuously remove iron from the bath thus eliminating bath dumps. This reduces the loss of free acid and the attendant treatment requirements. In addition, by allowing the economical use of higher free acid concentrations and lower dissolved iron concentrations, pickling speeds can be increased. The elimination of lost production time due to bath dumping and re-formulation is another benefit of continuous purification. Typical results for the APU System on hydrochloric acid service are given in Table 3.
在批处理酸洗功课中废液中的游离酸的程度能够很高。APU 可用于持续地从酸洗液中去除铁离子,从而制止改换酸洗液。这削减了游离酸和所陪伴的处置的丧失。另外,经由过程经济地利用高浓度的游离酸和较低的消融铁浓度,能够提高酸洗速度。而且没有华侈消费工夫去改换酸洗液,这是另一个益处。APU 体系在盐酸酸洗行业的表示,如表3 。
Table 3: APU Results - Hydrochloric Acid Service
Component /身分Feed/进水Product/产物Waste/华侈% Loss/丧失
Hydrofluoric acid /盐酸(g/L) 150 153 8.6 4
Iron/铁(g/L) 50 32 29 40
Relative Flow/相对流量1 0.94 0.7
The product is returned from the APU in a slightly concentrated state. Consideration must still be paid to the water balance in the pickle tank, particularly since commercial grade hydrochloric acid is a relatively weak (32% w/w) solution. If steam spargers are used for bath heating, difficulties may be encountered with the dilution caused by the condensed steam. Out-of-line heating systems using shell and tube heat exchangers are preferred to maximize the acid recovery.
从APU 体系获得的产品有细微的稀释。必需留意的是酸洗槽的给水量均衡,很明显的缘故原由是贸易级盐酸是一种相对较弱(32%W/W)的溶液。假如利用蒸汽喷淋器来停止酸洗加热,碰到的难点能够是稀释的蒸汽稀释溶液。能够首选管壳式热交换器的内部加热体系,能够最大限度地收受接管酸。
As previously discussed, other productivity related benefits have not been considered. In addition to quality related benefits, the APU System can allow higher free acid concentrations to be used economically. This may permit lower bath temperatures to be used. In addition to energy savings, lower temperatures lead to a reduction in HC1 vapor losses and the attendant treatment requirements.
     正如前面所会商的,其他消费相干的优势都没有被思索。除了质量有关的优势外, APU 体系能够许可经济地利用较高浓度的游离酸。这能够许可在较低的酸洗温度下利用。除了节约能源,低落温度招致盐酸蒸气丧失外,随之而来的是削减处置本钱。


4.3 Sulphuric Acid Pickling/硫酸酸洗
Sulphuric acid is most commonly used in batch pickling operations although, there are still some continuous sulphuric pickling lines in use. Generally, at least 10% w/w sulphuric acid must be maintained in the pickling acid to ensure minimum pickling rates. The acid becomes spent when the dissolved iron level reaches 6 - 8% by weight. At higher levels the iron will crystallize out of solution. Care must be taken not to allow either the free acid level, or the bath temperature, to get too high as this will depress the solubility of the ferrous sulphate. In addition to the controlconsiderations required with sulphuric acid, the spent bath can be difficult to treat. Dosing with lime generates large amounts of calcium sulphate(gypsum) sludge.
     固然硫酸最常见的用于批量酸洗操纵中,但仍旧有一些持续酸洗线在用。凡是,在酸洗酸中最少连结10%w/w 的硫酸,以确保最小的酸洗速度。当消融铁到达6-8%(重量)时,酸将生效。假如持续降低,铁将从溶液中结晶出来。出格留意的是,不能提高游离酸的浓度大概酸洗温度,由于这将压抑硫酸亚铁的溶解度。除了思索用硫酸所需的掌握外,废酸也是十分难处理的。用石灰加药会发生大量的硫酸钙(石膏)污泥。
Use of the APU on sulphuric acid pickling solutions can overcome these disadvantages. Continuous bath purification ensures that dissolved ironconcentrations don't exceed solubility levels.
     对硫酸酸洗液利用APU 体系能够克制这些缺陷。持续酸洗净化确保消融铁浓度不超过溶解度的程度。
Since the APU recovers free ( or unused ) acid in solution, higher sulphuric acid concentrations can be used economically. This can lead tosignificantly increased productivity levels. Typical results are given below.
     由于APU 能够规复溶液中的游离酸,能够经济的利用较高浓度的硫酸。这可能会明显的提高生产力程度。测试成果以下:
Table 5: APU Results - Sulphuric Acid Service/硫酸酸洗的APU 成果
Component /身分Feed/进料Product/产物Waste/华侈% Loss/丧失
Sulphuric acid /硫酸(g/L) 150 138 10 8
Iron/铁(g/L) 70 26 40 65
Temperature/温度(℃) 80 76 19 5
Relative Flow /相对流量1 1 1.15
It is worth noting that the APU System recovers most of the heat in the feedstock.
     值得留意的是,该APU 体系收受接管了进料中的大部分热量。
The APU process does not remove the ferrous sulphate in a recoverable form and magnesium hydroxide treatment is recommended. While this results in the generation of a considerable amount of ferrous hydroxide sludge, the filter cake is generally considered to be non-hazardous and canbe used as a landfill.
     APU 工艺不会去除可回收情势的硫酸亚铁,倡议用氢氧化镁处置。虽然这招致了相称数目的氢氧化亚铁淤渣的发生,可是滤饼遍及以为是有害的而且能够在渣滓填埋场处置。

5.0 Summary/总结
A proven low-cost purification system based on absorption resin technology is now available for a variety of pickling acids including the nitric / hydrofluoric mixtures used for stainless steels. In addition to reducing acid purchases and disposal requirements, the continuous system allows pickling baths to be economically operated at higher free acid and lower dissolved metal levels than would normally be considered practical. This
can lead to significant increases in productivity.
     曾经证明基于吸附树脂手艺的低成本纯化如今曾经成熟的应用于各类酸洗行业,包罗使用在不锈钢行业的硝酸/氢氟酸混酸。除了削减酸的采购和处置本钱外,并可经济的实现在更高浓度的游离酸下持续酸洗,而且金属消融盐度比凡是以为是可行的浓度更低。这能够明显的提高生产力。


6.0 References
1. Metals Ilandbook, 9th Edition, Volume 5 , pp 7 3 - 7 4 , American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio
2. M.J. Hatch, J.A. Dillon, Industrial and Engineering Process Design and Development, 2, 4, 253 (1963)
3 . I.H. Spinner, R.F. Hunter, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 42, 28, (1964)
4 . C . J . Brown, D. Davy, P.J. Simmons, Plating and Surface Finishing, 66, 54 (January 1979)

For Handling, Safety and Storage requirements please refer to the individual Material Safety Data Sheets available at our offices. The data included
herein are based on test information obtained by Thermax Limited. These date are believed to be reliable, but do not imply any warranty or
performance guarantee. Tolerances for characteristics are per BIS/ASTM. We recommend that the user should determine the performance of the
product by testing on his own processing equipment.
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